Apple’s Super Secret New Product


This article was written by contributing editor Gonz Blinko. From time to time, Gonz, with whom I rarely spend any time anymore, still sends me an article for publication here. I received this one from him this morning and found it interesting, informative and, as always is the case when Gonz writes a piece here, entertaining.


After weeks of investigation, talking to, getting drunk and pumping Apple employees for information, my friend Bryan Smart and I have gotten our hands onto a prototype model of the next great innovation coming from Apple. Like the Nike shoe iPhone app and a bunch of the biometric information collected by the AppleWatch, this next iPhone add-on gadget is designed to monitor health related information in a manner never previously seen as necessary for the millions of people who will plunk down the hefty pile of bucks to get their hands on this latest in Apple’s line of boutique products.

Welcome the iTurd

Are you getting enough fiber in your diet? Are you eating the right proportions of vitamins and minerals? Are you carrying potentially dangerous bacteria? I’m sure you all ask these questions every day and, coming this autumn as Apple releases the iPhone 6S and it’s standard Fall line of fashionable technology, you will have all of these answers and more if you run over to the Apple store and buy yourself an iTurd.

An Apple marketing professional, under conditions of anonymity, told us, “Sure, e-toilets already exist, as do medical testing laboratories but this product will revolutionize how we defecate, urinate and vomit forever. And, unlike the Amazon TurdFire or the Mozilla Foundation’s TurdBird, the iTurd integrates seamlessly with all of your iCloud enabled devices providing the most tightly integrated bathroom experience possible. We called the AppleWatch, “the most personal product ever,” I think we’ve eclipsed that success with our new iTurd.” ” ”

What Is the iTurd?

Those of you around my age (55) and older will probably remember the Ty-D-Bowl television commercial that featured a tiny man riding around in a little boat in one’s toilet tank keeping it clean, well, as the AppleWatch is to the Dick Tracy “video watch” from the comic strips a half century ago, what the iTurd does is far greater. An iTurd keeps your toilet clean while performing astounding other tasks unimagined even in the science fiction of my youth. our Apple marketing source claimed, “the iTurd provides a visit to the toilet with a near magical level, it’s like pooping at Disneyland. The iTurd will make your bowel movements more pleasurable than you may have ever thought possible and much more pleasant than you are already enjoying today.”

What Does the iTurd Look Like?

An iTurd is “sausage shaped” according to the Apple marketing materials but, as I hold mine in my hand, I might say it’s actually “turd shaped” with a few added features. Imagine a shit shaped submarine about three and a half inches long and you have an iTurd in your grasp.

How Does The iTurd Work?

Once charged and paired with one’s iCloud account, a user simply drops the iTurd into their toilet bowl and allows it to swim around doing its thing. When the toilet is not in use, the iTurd cruises around the edges scraping whatever collected detritus away, keeping your bowl clean enough for Rover to drink from safely. The iTurd uses only organic citrus generated cleaning fluids in cleansing mode so is eco-friendly as well.

Butt, There’s More…

We’ve had all sorts of products for keeping toilets clean so what has Apple added to make the iTurd into such an exciting and innovative product? In a single word, it’s: health-informatics. When your toilet is in use, which is to say you are urinating, moving your bowels or vomiting into it, the iTurd turns from a highly convenient cleaning product into a tiny submarine biological laboratory.

Within seconds of your first bit of poop or few grams of pee or puke hitting the surface of the water in your toilet, the iTurd mode changes and, after performing chemical analysis on both the fluids and solids in the bowl, sends your iPhone or other iCloud connected device more than 1500 separate data points derived from the nano-chemistry performed in this remarkable machine. By the time your done wiping your ass, your iPad or other iCloud connected device will be able to tell you everything from your blood sugar level to the incredibly important “roughage ratio,” information essential to your long term health and life expectancy. Plain and simply, having an iTurd in your bowl will help you live a longer and happier life.

What About Micro Organisms?

To date, modern medical science has identified tens of thousands of different bacteria, viruses, prions and other microscopic organisms that can lead to profound health problems and, in some cases, even death. With an iTurd, you will know immediately if any of more than 500 of the most common disease bearing micro-organisms are festering in your bowels and, being alerted to such early in the process means that you can get medical treatment during the incubation process, well before you would otherwise start to show symptoms of the disease itself. In this sense, you can consider the iTurd to be a fire alarm for ebola, small pox, polio and literally thousands of other little buggers that can maim or kill you.

Ever Worry About That Random Drug Test?

Did you go to the Pink Floyd reunion concert and sit too near an old hippy smoking a joint? Did you accidentally pop a few OXY Codone tablets thinking they were your morning vitamins? No problem, the iTurd will detect the fifteen most popular recreational drugs and report on them to you so you can arrive at work prepared for the worst.

Think You Might Be Pregnant?

If you’ve an iTurd in your bowl, it will alert you if you are in even the early stages of pregnancy. With a quick iTurd alarm, you can go off and get your “morning after” pills or start planning for a baby in your future.

How The iTurd Remains Charged

Using a new technology called AppleSpin, the iTurd contains components that turn motion into electricity. When you flush your toilet, the fluids swirling out spin the iTurd, causing it to recharge. It also provides a USB charging interface that, remarkably, works perfectly under water.

It’s Fun For the Whole Family

Each iTurd can be configured to recognize the expulsions of up to six different people and report information securely and privately to each’s iCloud enabled devices. Of course, one would want an iTurd for every toilet in their house as it’s often difficult to predict where one of the kids will decide to crap. Information from the iTurd from the kids can be shared with their parent’s devices so the nitwits who refuse to vaccinate their children can learn of oncoming measles, mumps and whooping cough. In a sense, the iTurd may be the product that saves your kids’ lives.

The iTurd Camera

When little Johnny or Joanie takes their first poop on the “big kid” toilet, your iTurd’s Hindsight® camera can broadcast a butthole view of the event and, by sending it to your AppleTV, allow the entire family to enjoy watching the event in big screen HD. And, of course, you can record this very first stool for viewing again and again.

What About Traveling?

Each iTurd comes with its own specially designed and hyper hygienic carrying case. If you’re heading off on a business trip or vacation, just reach into your toilet and pull out the iTurd, drop it into its case and toss it into your toiletry kit right next to your razor and toothbrush. And, like the other iOS devices, there’s a “find my iTurd” feature that you can access from any other of your iCloud attached products to tell if you had accidentally left it in a hotel toilet so they can mail it back to you.

Optional Features

Our information gathering has told us that the iTurd will be available in aluminum, stainless steel, gold or platinum plated and in a variety of shades of brown. Other extras include a telescoping toilet brush for cleaning beneath the rim and a blue tooth microphone so you can make your FaceTime calls while sitting on the crapper in the event that you forgot to bring your iPhone, iPad, Macintosh and/or AppleWatch to the john with you. Did you ever miss out on an important conference call because you had the runs? With an iTurd in your bowl, you’ll never miss a meeting again.

What About Accessibility?

As with all other iOS devices, the iTurd is accessible out of the box. Just hit its home button three times quickly and your iTurd will start talking to you. It can even, via blue tooth, announce its findings to you while you’re still on the bowl, just in the event that something horrible like small pox is detected.


I am entirely confident that within a few fiscal quarters, having an iTurd in your bowl will be an essential for all people who must own all things Apple. Imagine the embarrassment of having a friend come to your home, drink a few beers and, upon getting to your toilet for a piss, finds no iTurd? You’ll be the laughing stock of the entire hipster world. So, as soon as you can get one, grab hold of an iTurd and embrace this exciting new technology.

Our Apple source told us, “The iTurd will provide a totally new way we view our bowel movements and release of other bodily fluids in a manner incomprehensible ever before. People will live longer and happier lives. The iTurd is truly the future.”


The Irony Of Inaccessible Music Technologies


If one went out onto a city sidewalk to do a set of “man on the street” interviews asking a single question, “Name as many famous blind people as you can,” I’d be willing to predict that the names you would hear most often would be: Helen Keller, Stevie Wonder, Ray Charles, Ronnie Milsap, Jose Feliciano and Andrea Bocelli, all but one of whom are or were musicians. In fact, as blind people we often hear that we must be good at music because our auditory sense is enhanced due to our blindness (it’s not) and that we have inordinately good hearing (we don’t).

As with all stereotypes, however, there is a definite thread of truth regarding blind people and our collective interest in the musical arts. While sighted kids were sent out to play ball or find their way into some other sort of childhood mischief, blind youths, often overly protected by loving parents who didn’t care to see their kid get hurt, stayed at home, often playing music or enjoying audio work. The stereotype suggests that blind people are better at this stuff due to some super power developed when we lose our vision which, of course, is entirely false; if blind people are disproportionally successful as musicians, it’s because they spent many more hours practicing than do most others.

I do not describe myself using the word “musician,” instead, preferring, “not entirely awful amateur harmonica player” as a description of my musical efforts. I enjoy both acoustic and electric blues music and I really love listening to great harmonica players like Sonny Terry (coincidentally also blind), Little Walter, Sonny Boy Williamson, James Cotton, Big Walter Horton and loads of others. I enjoy blues-rock, especially acts from England in the late sixties like Cream, Jimi Hendrix Experience and Led Zeppelin but, more often than not, I find my inspiration in the electrified blues we call “Chicago Style.”

We find ourselves at an interesting point in history, digital technology can make virtually any computational task accessible to people with vision impairment. An application, web site or web app can, by following published standards like the accessibility API of the OS for which they are developing, WCAG 2.0, Aria and other standards, guidelines and best practices, be fully usable by a blind person with a screen reader.

As, by stereotype, blind people tend to gravitate toward music and audio work, why is so much of the technology related to recording, editing, producing and delivering such inaccessible? This article will explore some of the products I use with success, some that I cannot use at all and others that I can use somewhat but that contain some inaccessible features. This piece is in no way comprehensive, there are literally thousands of products available for musicians on the market today and there’s no way I could possibly give all of them a try. Hell, as a harmonica player, very few of these technologies would have any value to me, I care mostly about the instrument itself, my microphone (for electric blues harp blowing, I use a Shaker Mad Dog) and the amp through which I’m playing so I’ve no personal use for most musical technology out there today. Please do write comments about your experience with different music and audio related technologies and their accessibility so readers in the future might find them using a search engine and either choose to try something or not based on your recommendations.

Accessible Versus Usable

Arguably, Garageband from Apple on both their Macintosh and iOS platforms is the most accessible large scale bit of software for making, recording and delivering music and other audio content (podcasts and such) on the market today. Garageband, as I wrote in an article called, “The Macintosh User Experience,” exposes all of its features to the VoiceOver screen reader and a blind user can access all of them but many commonly used features of the software are unbearably inefficient to use.

I truly enjoy using Garageband for a handful of things. In my most frequent use case, I either load backing tracks from MP3 into a track in GB or create a back-up band for myself using AppleLoops and then play along with my virtual band. I do this most often on my iPad Mini using a guitar amplifier app I’ll mention later. This provides me with a great way to practice my playing without needing to find a drummer, bass player, guitarist and maybe a piano player.

What I find most frustrating with Garageband, on both iOS and OS X, though, is that editing one’s recordings, while accessible, requires the user to perform in one of the least efficient systems I’ve ever encountered. Simply cutting out a person coughing on a podcast track requires dozens of keystrokes and a fair amount of time to accomplish. Editing out a quarter second long bit of noise can take many minutes of effort, making Garageband an accessible but not exactly usable tool.

AmpKit Plus

Recently, a friend of mine suggested I might enjoy an iOS app called AmpKit. In brief, AmpKit is a collection of digital models of famous guitar amplifiers, speaker cabinets, stomp boxes and microphones from different eras and musical styles. As a harmonica player, I plug my microphone into a guitar amplifier so I can play with greater volume, some distortion, a bit of tremolo and some reverb effect. For my own playing, I like the sound of either a Fender Twin or a Vox AC30 with a bit of gain and some added reverb in my never ending attempt to sound as Little Walter did on his legendary recordings for Chess Records. I use a little box I bought for about $50 on Amazon that plugs into the headphone jack on my iPad with my harmonica mike plugged into it and the audio output running to the headphones covering my ears. With this set up, having spent the $20 or so for everything AmpKit has to offer in its in app store, I have a tremendous selection of gear that I can simulate and, if your playing is only as good as mine, you’ll sound terrific with this set up.

Inter App Audio

In iOS/7, Apple added a really interesting new feature called Inter App Audio that allows apps with such enabled to act as audio input devices for other audio related apps. For my purposes, this allows me to put a backing track into GB and play along with it using AmpKit to model my sound directly into Garageband. This permits me to both jam away practicing with my virtual band but it also allows me to record my own playing so I can listen to it (with or without backing tracks) later to gauge my progress as a player.

As AmpKit is entirely accessible and was the first Inter App Audio enabled bit of software I had installed, I was hoping that there might be a relationship between the accessibility API for iOS and that for mixing and matching apps in this way. Unfortunately, this turned out to be entirely false. The second app of this kind I installed is called “Amplitube” which also simulates famous vacuum tube based classic amplifiers of days gone by but, as it turns out, is almost entirely inaccessible. If you’re looking to model guitar amps and need to use VoiceOver, you will enjoy AmpKit but not be able to use Amplitube in any meaningful manner.

What About Hardware?

The Roland Micro Cube

While I enjoy practicing and recording using my iPad Mini, Garageband and AmpKit, I also need to play without headphones sometimes so others might hear me along with the guys with whom I’m jamming. For this, I use a Roland Micro Cube DSP based modeling amp that I picked up for $50 used at GuitarCenter. This little guy is terrific for practicing as it’s small and light but, at only 2 watts, it produces little in terms of volume. My harmonica playing purist friends scream when they hear me say I like this amp because it’s a digital system that models vacuum tubes instead of being an actual tube based amplifier. I’m not an audio purist, I’m happy with the sound I get from this amp when in its Fender Twin or Vox AC30 modes with a little reverb and tremolo turned on, features built into this amp and, if I need more volume, I can run the Micro Cube’s line out directly into a PA system without losing any of the audio clarity.

From an accessibility perspective, the Micro Cube and Roland’s entire line of DSP based amplifiers are a dream to operate. There is no LED display of any sort, all controls are hardware knobs and virtually anyone can figure out how to use them in little or no time.

The Behringer V-Amp 3

In my continuous quest to find the right sound for my harp blowing, I acquired a V-Amp 3 from Behringer. For all intents and purposes, the V-Amp is identical to the Micro Cube with the exception that it has no speaker at all. The V-Amp has a number of extra features that the Roland product does not but that one would find in AmpKit including the ability to change speaker cabinet simulations. Quite unfortunately, the V-Amp is only accessible in its “live” mode, a user can select an amplifier to model, adjust gain, reverb and set levels for bass, midrange and treble but cannot change speaker cabinets, use more than one stomp box effect at a time or use a lot of other features of the V-Amp as they all require one being able to see an LED screen on the device that is otherwise inaccessible.

Behringer allows any registered user of the V-Amp and a number of its other products to download software for controlling the device, recording and performing all sorts of other activities. As far as I can tell, having tried but not thoroughly tested the software on both Macintosh and Windows, it is not accessible and can not be used along with a screen reader.

Blindness Related Tutorials

In preparation for this article, I spent some time googling around searching on terms related to blindness, playing music, working with audio and making recordings. Some of these, especially one on using Amadeus Pro with Apple’s VoiceOver screen reader have been very useful for me and I’m grateful to those who spend the time to make YouTube videos, podcasts and write blog articles explaining how blind people can use this class of application.

What I find disturbing, though, is that virtually all of these tutorials spend a lot of time and words explaining how a screen reader user can work around accessibility problems in the different hardware and software they are describing. The sad thing is that the state of musical and audio accessibility is very poor. What’s worse is that it seems to be getting worse. While a harmonica player like me can find solutions, my friends who play keyboard based instruments are faced daily with an increasingly large number of features that are either impossible or very difficult to access on their instruments as virtually all have some kind of LED display that one needs to read to perform some actions. It’s certainly true that a blind musician can spend hours on end learning and memorizing exactly which operations need to occur in precisely which order to execute them without any feedback. It’s also true that at least one blind person could climb Mount Everest. I will contend that the majority of blind people who want to play around with musical technology do so in order to have some fun and not to earn a living. Or, at least, that’s why I use musical and audio technologies.


Rereading this article leaves me with the impression that the landscape regarding music and accessibility isn’t too bad. This is because I used as examples the technology products I actually use on a daily basis which, almost by definition, means that it’s going to be at least usably accessible. The unfortunate truth is that I often download musical related applications with some frequency that are impossible to use with any screen reader on any OS. Sadly, as with a lot of accessibility problems, a lot of these could be remedied pretty easily if the application is designed for a single platform. Most unfortunately, though, is that the engineers who write the musical software we might enjoy using often do so using cross platform user interface libraries that, although the underlying OS has an accessibility API, the library they are using so as to write the code once and run it on Windows, Macintosh, iOS, Android and maybe GNU/Linux too, does not support said API. I’m working on a long and detailed set of articles called “The Fundamental Failure Of Frameworks” that will dive into this issue in a broad manner but, for musicians in particular, these cross platform UI systems are at the core of the accessibility problems.

So, please write comments about your experience with different musical and audio technologies. This article ignores software that runs on Windows mostly because I’ve only recently got myself a Windows computer and, excepting Audacity, I haven’t had the chance to give any software in this class more than a cursory look. If you use such programs on Windows, please do tell the rest of us what you use and how many workarounds you need to deal with to get the job done using such. I also mentioned no Android programs as I no longer have an Android device in my house and cannot test software on that platform so, if you are using such successfully, please do tell us about it.

To conclude, the entire world seems to believe that blind people make terrific musicians with the exception of the companies that make technology related to music who seem to ignore our needs as a matter of course. Some companies, certainly Apple and the people who bring us AmpKit do a terrific job with accessibility but have some distance to come to improve actual usability and efficiency. Others, like those who bring us Amplitube ignore accessibility entirely. I’ve no way of knowing which technologies will or will not be accessible until I’ve actually tried to work with them myself and, as I’ve a limited amount of time and dollars to devote to my music (it’s just a hobby after all), I will never be able to write a fully comprehensive survey of the accessibility landscape regarding music and hope you readers help by writing comments.

What Did I Just Agree To?


A few of weeks ago, as I do most days while not traveling (I am writing this article on a train from Manchester, England to Edinburgh, Scotland), I was hanging out on TeamTalk with our usual crowd of blind hackers, technology freaks and other friends who join us on occasion. That day, one of my buddies said he had heard a rumor about the JAWS license agreement but didn’t know if it was true or not.

The rumor was that, since releasing the new 90 day evaluation version of JAWS that Freedom Scientific had also changed its end user license agreement (EULA) to prohibit using the no cost 40 minute demo version for any reason other than evaluating it to decide if you would later choose to purchase the product. In brief, this means that a sighted programmer is prohibited from downloading the 40 minute version to use as an accessibility testing tool.

As with many rumors in this community and elsewhere, it’s actually partially true and partially false. The part that was incorrect is that FS added this language to its EULA after releasing the 90 day version of the program. The part that is true and, according to an article on the WebAIM site, has been true for a long time is that it is indeed a violation of its EULA to use the 40 minute demo version of JAWS as a testing tool.

To learn if the rumor was true, I got a copy of the JAWS 16 EULA and read the entire thing. It’s not very long, is written largely in plain English but contains a number of things that I found interesting. I will be quoting directly from the EULA which is also covered by the FS copyright but I will assume that the US laws on fair use of materials in journalism is acceptable under our nation’s copyright laws and will assume FS will not sue me for informing my readers because I excerpted a handful of sentences from their EULA. If they decide to sue me, I’ll ask you, my loyal readers, to help with the legal fees but I doubt it will come to that.

My Favorite Part Of The EULA


I absolutely love this sentence as it appears in the JAWS EULA which you cannot read until you’ve downloaded JAWS. Thus, by simply downloading the software without having previously read or agreed to the terms of the EULA, you are bound to it. I searched the FS web site and did a few Google searches on terms like “JAWS End User License Agreement,” “Freedom Scientific EULA” and the sorts of things one might use to find the EULA online. If FS has it on its web site, it’s well hidden. Thus, FS asserts that you are bound by the entire remainder of the text before they gave you the opportunity to actually know to which you’ve agreed.

My Second Favorite Sentence In The EULA

In section 11.7, titled “Sever ability,” the JAWS EULA says,
“In the event that any one or more of the provisions of this Agreement are held to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable”, the enforceability of the remaining provisions shall be unimpaired and enforced to the full extent permitted by law.”

What does this sentence actually say? In brief, FS is asserting that some, maybe even all of the EULA that appears before this sentence may not even be legal, enforceable or anything more than bullshit intended to frighten its users away from doing anything that they felt like tossing into a contract into which you may have entered accidentally by just downloading JAWS to check it out. This is not an uncommon tactic in software license agreements, it’s the way most of them get around restricting their statements to things that are actually legal.

The 40 Minute Demo Clause

“The JAWS EULA says, ”The JAWS 40 Minute Mode is not intended for commercial use or extended product testing, other than use while waiting for an authorized license or key to arrive or be installed.”

Thus, this half of the rumor that provoked this article is indeed true. If you are a web or other developer who wants to ensure that your software is accessible for JAWS users, you need to buy JAWS. This, of course, if not ignored by the coders hoping to test their code for accessibility means that they need to spend some money just to make sure JAWS users can enjoy their work. In brief, Freedom Scientific is, with this clause in its EULA, making it less likely that a software developer will even bother to try to make their work better for JAWS users. Fs quite obviously cares more about squeezing extra profits out of the kind of developers, the sorts who actually want to test their software for accessibility, whom I believe we should be encouraging.

There is an easy workaround for this problem: use NVDA to do your testing. NVDA is more compliant with standards and the various accessibility API used on Windows so, the results of your testing will more accurately reflect how your code is compliant with the standards. This may mean that JAWS users will have a less pleasant experience as the testing will not account for any of the more advanced techniques used in JAWS to work around poor accessibility but you can use NVDA for free, forever. If you are working on a web based project, you might also test on a Macintosh or iOS product where where VoiceOver, the Apple screen reader, is shipped at no extra cost to anyone who purchases an Apple device. Even Android, a system that any regular reader of this blog would know I dislike at this point, can be used to test your web based projects using the FireFox browser (Chrome is too buggy in how it delivers accessibility information to TalkBack, hence, is a poor testing tool).

The Standard Home Edition Restrictions

Quoting from the JAWS EULA again, “The Standard Home Edition License is limited to use by a single End User only and is limited to Your personal and non-commercial use.”

This simple sentence says a real lot. First, it says, “a single user” and not, “a single user at a time.” This means if one of your blind friends comes to your house and asks you if she can use your computer to check their email or perform some other minimal task, you are in violation of the JAWS EULA. So, if you want to follow the letter of the agreement, an agreement you didn’t get the chance to read before you downloaded the software and were already bound to follow, you can’t let your friends or family members or dog or space alien or any other entity who might want to share your computer for a little while. It also means that a blind couple living together must purchase two JAWS licenses as married people are never described as “single” in the US dialect of English.

This also seems to mean that you need to buy two copies of JAWS to use the JAWS Tandem feature. Read the sentence, you can only use it on one computer at a time so you can’t even use it to control another computer that you own. You can install JAWS on as many computers as you like, you just can’t use JAWS to allow them to communicate with each other.

Lastly, this means you need to plunk down a few hundred more dollars if you hope to use JAWS in any professional capacity. This could mean sending an email to a friend saying, “yes, I can babysit for your kid today,” as that would be professional communication, hence, prohibited by the JAWS EULA for the standard edition.

NVDA and Window-Eyes Licenses

NVDA is covered by the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2. This means you can use it in any way you choose, at no cost, forever. You even have the right to get the NVDA source code and, if you have Python programming skills and the desire to do so, you can even make changes to NVDA itself. GPL was written by Eben Moglen at Columbia University under direction of the Free Software Foundation. It is designed to protect your freedoms and I find it a bit ironic that FS has the word “Freedom” in its name as anyone reading its EULA can tell you, that freedom, with a lower case f, isn’t part of their agenda.

In preparation for this piece, I took a look at the Window-Eyes license. While WE is not “free as in freedom,” it can be had for no cost if you also own Microsoft Office, which can be had for roughly $10 per month, profoundly less than the cost of buying JAWS. While I didn’t spend a lot of time with the WE agreement (this article is about JAWS after all), I did check and there’s no restriction against using the no cost version. I personally get confused when using WE as I use NVDA and the differences between the two and my poor level of familiarity with WE makes it a real pain for me to even test. If you need a no cost Windows screen reader and for some reason don’t like NVDA, give Window-Eyes a try before you even download JAWS as downloading JAWS committed you to a bunch of stuff that, as you can read above, you may not actually agree with. I didn’t mention WE in the section discussing using a screen reader as a testing tool mostly because of its relatively poor level of standards compliance on the web. I’m told this is getting better and will revise this opinion when and if WE catches up with JAWS, NVDA and the iOS version of VoiceOver.


If you want a screen reader and do not absolutely need the ever shrinking handful of features that only JAWS provides, you should switch over to NVDA. It’s a terrific screen reader, you cannot beat the price and it is incredibly standards compliant.

You might also take a little time to read the EULA on software you use. All of us with a smartphone, including me, just hit “Agree” and move on. The Apple EULA is incredibly long and I doubt any of us know to what we agreed when we accepted the license in order to actually use the product we purchased.

Freedom Scientific is a notoriously litigious company. On nine separate occasions, I’ve received letters from their attorneys regarding legal action they would either actually take or just threaten about articles I’ve written on my blog. Defending oneself against even a frivolous lawsuit is a costly endeavor and, as FS admits in its EULA, some of it may not even be legal but it will cost you a lot to find an attorney to help sort out what parts of the EULA are even enforceable. They can put anything in their EULA and it’s up to you to pay the legal fees to sort it all out.

The Foggy Third Party Screen Reader Issue


Last week, I published a story here highly critical of NFBCS, NFB and Curtis Chong as leaders in technology related to blindness. The piece, “Accessibility And NFBCS” described a number of incredibly important issues in technological accessibility for people with vision impairment in which the largest advocacy organization in the world of blindness remains absent and asks how they can be effective leaders if they ignore the most important events of the day.

The article also discussed the question of whether or not it would have been better if Microsoft had made its own “end to end” screen reader. I believe that, as Apple provides on iOS and Macintosh and Google includes on Android, that all OS should have a fully functional screen reader shipping out-of-the-box. Sighted people don’t need to pay extra for the graphical UI they use, blind people should not need to pay extra for the UI we use either.

In last week’s article, I discuss the NFB role in pressuring Microsoft into not doing its own screen reader, favoring instead the high priced, third party solutions from Freedom Scientific, GW Micro, Dolphin and other companies. Last week’s article was specifically about NFBCS and Curtis Chong’s writings in Braille Monitor. It, therefore, described the NFB role in the third party screen reader story with little context. In the early drafts of that piece, I did include much more historical context but those early drafts of the article contained more than 6000 words and the final version that I actually published still had more than 3600 and was “too long” for some of my readers.

After publishing the story last week, I spent a few hours talking on the phone with NFB insiders who, like me and the other sources I used for that article, were actually present for some of the meetings with Microsoft and were observers to this history. While I feel that the story I told last week about NFBCS and its role is true, I also think it’s important that I tell the rest of the story.

I try to publish here every Tuesday. In some weeks, I have a lot of time to do a lot of research and write fairly formal pieces. Some weeks, like this one, I’ve less time to devote to the blog and, therefore, will be telling this story largely from memory. Unlike some articles here, it will not contain a lot of links to outside sources and such because I just haven’t the time to do so this week.

Ted Henter’s Speech

In the late nineties, Ted Henter, founder of Henter-Joyce and the inventor of JAWS, took the stage at an NFB convention general assembly and made a speech detailing exactly why he felt that screen readers will always be best if developed by small companies dedicated entirely to access technology. One may believe that Ted said these things out of a purely cynical desire to protect the profits of his own company but, while tis may be partially so, having worked for, talked to, hung out with and been friends with him for more than a decade now, I’m confident that Ted was speaking honestly to what he felt was a greater good.

When Ted made that speech, there were no fully functional screen readers built into operating systems. IBM had made two screen readers, Screen Reader/DOS and Screen Reader/2 but neither had ever gathered much popular appeal. Vocal-Eyes from GW Micro had been the most popular DOS screen reader among American users, followed by the DOS version of JAWS. When Windows came along, JAWS for Windows (JFW) and Window-Eyes would together dominate the market. Thus, when Ted made his speech, there were no examples of a fully functional screen reader having been accepted broadly by the user community, thus, no evidence of an OS vendor making a tool that our community would actually enjoy using.

The Others In The Room

Starting around 1995, MS held meetings on its campus up in Redmond to which as many accessibility oriented stakeholders were invited. This, of course, included the screen reader vendors, advocacy organizations including NFB, ACB and AFB and other notables from the world of technology and disability. As I state in the introduction, I am writing this from memory and the two NFB insiders to whom I spoke last week were also telling the story from their memories so, please realize, the following may be a bit foggy as that’s how human memory works.

As far as I can tell, everyone in the room at those meetings, the AT companies trying to protect our profits and the advocacy organizations speaking on behalf of their constituents, agreed that the third party screen reader system would provide the greatest access for the vast majority of users. I will contend that, then and for a number of years into this century, this model was probably the right path to take.

Life Before Accessibility API

If you are one of the many blind people who enjoy using an iOS device from Apple (iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch), you are benefitting from Apple’s very well designed accessibility API and compliance with it in the apps you use. In the late nineties, though, there were no examples of a functional API driven screen reader anywhere.

The Big Hack

In the days before modern accessibility API had been invented, Windows screen readers used a technique called “driver hooking.” In brief, a part of JAWS, HAL, Window-Eyes and the others pretended it was a video card driver and gathered its data in what we called an “off screen model” (OSM). In brief, the OSM was a database of information sorted primarily on where things appear on the screen. Using some other techniques, the screen readers knew which Window, hence, application they were in and, along wit painstakingly developed heuristics for each program they hoped to support, they would then speak and/or braille the information for their users.

A little example of how this worked that I can recall of the top of my head is how JAWS tracked focus in Excel. To “know” which cell a user had in focus, the JAWS Excel support would “see” that the software had issued a series of “LineTo” graphical drawing commands to the video driver. JAWS had no actual idea about what was going on in Excel, so it had to jump through heuristic hoops to do something as simple as tracking focus.

Needless to say, a system built on having human programmers spend so much time figuring out the strange details of how a rectangle is drawn on the screen to track focus had severe limitations. Anytime an application made the slightest change, it would likely break the screen reader.

The OSM and screen scraping techniques also introduced major stability problems as it was such a non-standard way of doing things that neither Windows nor the applications running on it were aware of the screen reader as a device driver and, for their own purposes, also used non-standard techniques to put information on the screen. An application would try to do its own optimizations and would, as a result, cause a screen reader to crash.

MSAA 1.0

Microsoft’s was the first OS vendor to attempt to build an accessibility API. It was called Microsoft Active Accessibility (MSAA) and, to be frank, it was little more than a demo of things to come. MSAA, even in its 2.0 version, did not provide a screen reader with enough information to provide its users with a usable solution. Thus, all screen readers using MSAA back then also had to include non-standard techniques to provide information properly to their users.

This fact alone is a large part of what made it virtually impossible for MS to make its own screen reader, until the advent of UIA (later in this piece), it was impossible to use anything resembling standard techniques to gather information.

The VBA Hack

At Henter-Joyce, Glen Gordon, still the top developer on JAWS, realized that using the automation API designed for VisualBasic programmers to extend Microsoft Office and other applications could also be used to get data into a screen reader. The JAWS team took Glen’s idea and ran with it. This was what the JAWS developers used to do all of the amazing things we did in MS Office back then.

The good thing about using the VBA approach was that we could gather very specific information in the context of the application being employed. We no longer had to follow graphics commands to determine focus, we could get the precise coordinates by simply asking Excel. There were two major downsides to this approach, it required that each application supported in this way have hand coded scripts written for it, hence, it also required that the screen reader had a scripting facility, something that, back then, Window-Eyes didn’t have and proudly boasted that they didn’t even want.

The Window-Eyes Versus JAWS Approach

At this point in our story, I must acknowledge that GW Micro, in what felt to me like business suicide, chose to embrace the MSAA path while we, at Freedom Scientific, continued to reject it. History shows us that GW Micro was on the right side of the technological discussion then but, in my mind, they arrived at that conclusion too early.

While GW Micro would provide no cost consulting advice to billion dollar corporations on how to get MSAA implemented in their software, we, at FS continued down the path of non-standard solutions. In many ways, this is what put JAWS on top of the heap, it could do things no other screen reader could and it provided the best experience for its users as a result.

The Hole In The JAWS Approach

In order to provide the best possible collection of data to its users, JAWS employed v very non-standard techniques mixing its OSM with the VBA support and MSAA where available. The outcomes were terrific for the end uses but, inside FS, continuing to support each application using custom code (scripts and internal) was an expensive proposition. In the world of generic accessibility API, a screen reader like VoiceOver gets all of its information from said interface, hence, when the app changes, no one needs to go in and change the code in the screen reader. This was not true then and to a lesser extent now for JAWS.

As I’ve written here many times before, by 2003, JAWS had reached a monopoly marketshare at around 85% of all new product sales. FS, therefore, had no incentive to continue investing in JAWS as it had won the race. Thus, with JAWS receiving less and less funding annually, these custom solutions started to deteriorate.

The First Real Accessibility API

While MSAA was a pretty poor bit of technology, Microsoft should be recognized for even giving it a try. As there were no accessibility API in existence before MSAA, they had no point of reference and MSAA stood as a solid prototype for things to come.

In my opinion, the first truly usable accessibility API was the one led by Peter Korn at Sun Microsystems. It not only provided specific information about a control, it had the facility to provide its context, hence, enable a screen reader to provide a more complete picture to its users. In effect, the Gnome Accessibility API was the first of its breed.

Apple would follow with its API and Microsoft would craft something called User Interface Automation (UIA) that serves as both an accessibility API and a test framework for the software. Today, with comprehensive accessibility API on all major OS, it’s reasonable to expect a fully featured screen reader also to be included with of them.


On iOS, OSX and Gnome, there’s one accessibility API on each. On Windows, the OS with the largest number of users, blind or otherwise, there is a second one called iAccessible2 (iA2). Some experts would argue that iA2 is the best and most important of the various accessibility but, in all honesty, I’m not expert enough to describe either its benefits or any pitfalls within it. The Mozilla Foundation chose iA2 over UIA or MSAA in the Windows versions of it’s applications and it’s iA2 that you’re enjoying when you use FireFox with NVDA.

When iA2 was developed, it was intended to be a cross platform accessibility API. The goal was to permit application developers who build software on multiple OS to write their accessibility code once and be able to reuse it on other systems. Sadly, while iA2 is “owned” by the Linux Foundation, it has never been implemented on any system other than Windows, something I think is a shame.

Another huge question is whether or not Microsoft will support iA2 in its “end to end” Narrator. They may elect to only support UIA/MSAA and, therefore, leave FireFox and the other iA2 enabled applications out of the sphere of its support. This could be another reason third party screen readers like NVDA may stick around into the future.


The only conclusion I can draw about the entire third party screen reader debate is that the story is much more foggy than one might think. NFB did insist on promoting the third party, mom and pop company solutions but they didn’t do so alone. HJ/FS, GW Micro, AFB, ACB and everyone else in those meetings except for MS agreed that this was the best path forward. History and Apple have demonstrated that it is, indeed, possible to deliver a high quality, no cost screen reader along with the OS and, holding that high priced, proprietary third party screen readers are a favorable solution in the 21st century is purely anachronistic thinking.

I do not mean to suggest that third party screen readers will or even should disappear entirely, they will likely fulfill an important set of requirements for a lot of people, third party screen readers might even become the luxury products of the Windows world, supporting applications too old to have included MSAA/UIA or by providing a user experience different from and preferred by some to the generic Narrator. Of course, I’ve been predicting the demise of the commercial third party screen reader since I wrote an article slamming JAWS 7 on my old blog so I’m likely not the best prognosticator of things to come.


I would like to express my thanks to the loyal NFB members to whom I talked on the phone and exchanged emails with last week. I appreciate the insight you guys gave me, a different perspective on the different meetings up in Redmond and the help you provided in writing this article. I appreciate honest and sincere dialogue and also thank the NFB faithful and everyone else who posted comments on last week’s article. In my opinion, the more discussion we can have about this community within this community the better.

Fortunately for all involved, technology progresses. At the AFB Leadership conference in Phoenix last week, Rob Sinclair announced that Narrator would, in Windows 10, be an “end to end” screen reader. Only the future can tell us how it will work out.

Accessibility and NFBCS: More Questions Than Results


Last week, Curtis Chong, the seemingly permanent president of The NFB in Computer Science (NFBCS) published an article in Braille Monitor highly critical of accessibility at Microsoft, especially of the accessibility on its Windows platform. Chong presents a number of indisputable facts with which I agree entirely, there are many things regarding accessibility to people with vision impairment that Microsoft does very poorly. Chong is also correct that accessibility across the Microsoft catalogue is highly inconsistent with some programs providing excellent coverage and others providing none at all. I applaud Curtis for the shedding light on the problems he describes and hope Microsoft will take action to remedy them as quickly as possible.

I also felt that Chong’s article was misleading, that it contained statements that were either inaccurate or unverifiable but, worst of all, it lacks detail in the historical context, an elephant sized hole in the story.

Over the past month or so, I’ve been exploring the concept of leadership in the blindness and technology space. I’ve talked about the changing leadership paradigm in, “Anarchy, Leadership and NVDA,” I’ve discussed leadership in innovation through traditional paths in my CSUN 2015 report and, in my article about Be My Eyes, I discussed another path a team had taken to lead a project of significant value. This article will, in the context of Chong’s piece, explore leadership in technology from NFB and how it, in my opinion, has been a failure for decades.

This article was sourced through public records and through private conversations and communications with 2 former and 2 current Microsoft employees and a number of others who had witnessed some or all of the events described herein. In my role at Freedom Scientific, I was also party to and present at some of the discussions summarized below. Thus, my sources are not “anonymous” but, rather, “unnamed.” As some of these statements are controversial, I will not reveal my sources as they may face retribution. They can, if they choose, self-identify themselves in the comments section. It is very likely that at least one section in this piece will be broken out into a separate and more detailed account of that part of the history as I think you will find it very interesting.

What Curtis Got Right

First, I’d like to recognize that Curtis gets a lot correct in his piece. I’ll confirm that most of the facts I did check are true. The statement he makes in his opening paragraph, “For those of us who are blind, access to Microsoft products is not just something that we would like to have. Rather, full non-visual access to Microsoft products is essential if we are to have any hope of being able to compete in today’s technology-driven labor market, let alone maintain parity with our sighted neighbors at home,” could not possibly be more true.

Chong’s article lists a number of MS products that are mostly inaccessible. Chong’s conclusions, that MS still has a lot of work ahead of them to ensure true and universal accessibility is also true.

The Elephant Sized Hole In The Story

If you haven’t already, please stop reading here and read Chong’s piece immediately.

Now that you’re back, ask yourself, what piece of technology fundamentally important to users with vision impairment does Curtis not mention in his article? If Apple has VoiceOver, a fully featured screen reader, Google has TalkBack, a rough attempt at the same and the Gnome Foundation has Orca, why does Microsoft have no fully featured screen reader of its own? Curtis may have simply been careless in his reporting, he may have been so focussed on application accessibility that he simply forgot to include the missing screen reader in his analysis. Or, as I contend, Curtis left out this detail intentionally.

The elephant sized hole in the story is that NFB has been on the wrong side of the leadership argument in their interactions with Microsoft. NFB’s positions have prevented MS from making its own screen reader and, as we will see later, its continued support for third party commercial AT is part of the reason why Microsoft still has accessibility problems in its technology.

The pressure NFB has put on Microsoft into not building its own screen reader, preferring instead to accept that third party screen readers would provide access to the Windows operating system has been a failure. It is for this reason that, when one launches Narrator, the screen access utility from Microsoft, it tells the user that it is not a fully functional tool and is only useful as a temporary solution until the user installs a real one.

the economic realities of business in the 21st century meant that the “mom and pop” companies like HJ and Blazie Engineering would find their way into a merger/acquisition deal that would put ruthless venture capitalists in charge of JAWS, still the most popular screen reader. The same economic realities have shown the Window-Eyes share, once equal to that of JAWS, drop to single digits.

Perhaps the most notable economic reality that the NFB approach ignored was that, because a screen reader is necessarily a niche product, the only way an independent company can make one and be profitable is by charging a real lot of money for each license. The NFB tact of working against an MS screen reader cost blind people, their employers and their educators millions of dollars that could have been spent otherwise if a no cost one existed. . NVDA, led by volunteers, saw the inequity of blind people needing to spend hundreds to thousands of dollars and its leaders took it on themselves to solve this problem while NFB ignored it entirely.

The Third Party Screen Reader Hypocrisy

As we’ve seen, NFB insisted that MS not do its own screen reader. NFB would later insist that Apple and Google build their own screen readers to provide out-of-the-box accessibility at no extra cost to consumers. I wonder if NFB learned from the chaos on Windows system and realized that it would be better if a screen reader was built into the operating system. Chong seems to praise the Apple experience which, regarding out-of-the-box accessibility is the best available.

In his piece, Curtis suggests that application developers at Microsoft should be tasked with testing against screen readers. This actually makes sense on products from Apple and Google as every developer at those companies have a screen reader they can launch easily and, if tasked with testing for accessibility in their project plans, they need only test against a single user agent. Chong seems to suggest that developers at Microsoft, instead of testing for compliance with the accessibility API, also perform functional tests against third party software. I think it’s absurd to think that developers at MS should try to test against software over which they have no control. If they were tasked with testing with Narrator, it would make sense, MS controls both the application and the AT; suggesting that developers and quality assurance professionals at MS learn JAWS and NVDA (the only Windows screen readers with enough market presence to warrant testing) and test against them is simply absurd.

Is NFBCS An Effective Advocate?

Chong writes, “Year after year, the National Federation of the Blind and the Microsoft Accessibility Team engage in active and ongoing communication, and year after year, we have communicated our frustrations and concerns to this team.” To which I ask, “If Curtis and NFB have been working with the MS ATG for more than two decades and, as Chong expresses in his article, the accessibility job remains mostly incomplete, are Curtis Chong, NFBCS and NFB itself actually effective advocates for this community?”

The Notable NFB Absences

I contend that Curtis and NFB have done a poor job of understanding the technology and, as a result, are ineffective advocates in this space. I didn’t quite know how I could express how an advocacy organization was “ineffective” as proving a negative is a logical impossibility so, instead, I thought I might list a number of very important areas in accessibility for people with vision impairment that, as far as Google can tell us, NFB has not participated. To this end, I used the search engine to look for terms important in technological accessibility with “National Federation Of The Blind” and/or “NFB” in the search terms.

  • WCAG 2.0 is the single most important set of guidelines for Internet accessibility to all people with disabilities, including we blind people. I googled, “+NFB WCAG 2.0” and found that Google gave us 7 results, zero of which were on an NFB related site. I then googled, using “National Federation Of The Blind” in place of “NFB” and did find one link to an NFB site in the top ten results and it was the consent decree in an NFB lawsuit requiring the defendant to follow WCAG 2.0. I tried a few more search terms and found identical results, it is obvious that no one from NFB, not even Curtis the president of the computer science subgroup, participated in the development of the standard and that there isn’t a single article on the NFB web site explaining this somewhat complex and definitely esoteric set of guidelines. Searching on these terms without including NFB provides one with a panoply of tutorials and other useful information from the entire world of accessibility but, sadly, none of it comes from NFB.

  • The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) has another standard called Aria. Web developers use Aria to include the semantics that a screen reader can use to tell users about complex web applications. In brief, if you use a complicated but also accessible web application like Microsoft Office Online (quite accessible albeit a bit sluggish with NVDA and FireFox), you are enjoying the work the developers did using Aria. So, I googled “+NFB WAI Aria” and, guess what? I found zero entries on any NFB sites. When I spelled out the name of the organization, I find exactly one search result on an NFB page and, once again, it is about legal frameworks and not technology. Searching without the “+NFB” provides one with another large list of tutorials, analysis, explanatory information about Aria from everywhere in the world of accessibility but not NFB.

  • Microsoft’s accessibility API is called User Interface Automation, if Curtis and NFB are so concerned about the accessibility of Windows applications, surely they must provide readers of the NFB web site with information on how to ensure their applications comply with the API, right? Wrong. If you google “+NFB User Interface Automation” you will probably, as I did, get zero results and two advertisements for contractors who do work using UIA. No matter how we search, we can’t find anything from NFB on this important piece of technology.

  • The 21st Century Video and Communication Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA) is the most important bit of new legislation regarding disability and technology to come along in quite some time. As with all such laws, the agency charged with enforcement must hold a public comment period to determine how it should proceed with the wishes of Congress. During the CVAA public comment period, Pratik Patel (then Curtis’ approximate equivalent at ACB), on behalf of his advocacy organization, filed hundreds of pages in public comments. The combination of NFB, NFBCS and Curtis Chong filed exactly zero. I’m neither a member nor a promotor of ACB but, on this very important task in ensuring that CVAA will be enforced, Pratik and ACB took on a leadership. I’ll assume that the reason NFB, NFBCS and Curtis made no comments was that they were overwhelmingly impressed by Pratik’s genius in this matter and were happy to have ACB speak for all blind people.

  • The Section 508 Refresh was passed by Congress and opened for public comment. Again, Pratik Patel and the ACB wrote up a ton of documentation and filed it in this important matter. Heck, on behalf of the Free Software Foundation (not a group known for its stellar record on accessibility), I filed a few pages of comment on 508 Refresh. The beauty of public comment is that it’s public so anyone can search the records and discover that NFB filed nothing on this matter. A friend who had attended the public hearings told me that NFB people did attend those sessions but that their only contributions could be summarized as, “blind people need to be involved in the process,” which was already true when they said it and, “NFB speaks for blind people,” which I contend is false as they don’t speak for me. I said the NFB deferred to Pratik on CVAA so I’ll suggest that Curtis and the NFB must have found my comments so brilliant, so illustrative that they chose not to do any of their own and let me speak for the community.

I could go on but, at this stage, I think you get the point. NFB and NFBCS, under Curtis Chong’s leadership, has steadfastly refused to participate in the most important developments in access technology. If, indeed, NFBCS, NFB and Curtis Chong have not contributed to the development, promotion, explanation of these and other extraordinarily important areas in accessibility, they are irrelevant as leaders. It’s easy to write articles like Curtis’, it’s easy to complain, to bitch and moan but it takes actual work to be part of the solution, work that Curtis and NFBCS have thus far refused to join in doing.

Gonz Gets Pedantic

I try to do my best to post articles that are as factual as possible. I may draw a controversial conclusion and use fairly aggressive prose when I express an opinion but, whenever a factual error is presented to me in an article I had published previously, I add a correction to the piece.

This blog is different from Curtis Chong’s articles in Braille Monitor (BM) for a lot of other reasons as well. First, I do not claim to be representing anyone other than myself and those who have given me explicit permission to speak for them. Curtis, in his role, claims to speak for “the blind” which, arguably, would include me. Second, Curtis, as is obvious by the introductory section in his article, claims to speak with authority, apparently derived from talking to other blind people; my own blog profile states that I am a loudmouth, crackpot stoner, I don’t claim any authority or expertise, I let my words speak for themselves and allow the readers to draw their own conclusions. Third, I allow you to post comments on this blog and no NFB publications, including Curtis’ articles in BM, permit any public discourse. If Curtis allowed for comments, we could have had this conversation as dialogue and the rest of you could have contributed as well but NFB sorts speak from “on high” and discourage interaction.

I, therefore, feel it is reasonable to hold Curtis Chong to a higher journalistic standard than I do even myself. He claims to be speaking for all of us and I, therefore, think he should be more careful with the way he states things. To wit:

  • Curtis writes, “Today only a small percentage of Microsoft products are regarded by the blind as comfortable and intuitive to use…” and as far as I know this may be true. As far as I know, this statement is false. I would like to know what was Curtis source for the things he states as fact, namely, the term “a small percentage.” I would also like to know Curtis’ definition of “the blind” in this sentence as I cannot find a supporting document in my googling.

  • Curtis, in the same section, continues by stating, “well over 80 percent of Microsoft products remain inaccessible to non-visual users.” I googled using as many terms as I could and could not find this 80% number published anywhere. I’m also curious as to the definition of “accessible” in this context. Did Curtis or others around the NFB actually test every program from MS and, if so, where did they publish their results. I dislike magic numbers when included in prose and, when used to discredit a corporation’s efforts, I believe that such numbers should not be used without a verifiable source as doing so is just ad hominem.

  • Chong writes, “There does not appear to be any user-experience research being conducted by Microsoft into improving efficiency for keyboard-only users, including the blind.” First, blind people also use crazy wild new fangled things like touch screens and track pads as well as keyboards these days. Second, many years ago, NFB itself published a valuable bit of UX research and is the command set still used on most braille keyboard based devices; as far as I can tell, with Curtis at the helm, NFBCS and NFB have not published any UX research in this area either. Researching user experience for keyboard only users would provide an excellent resource to Microsoft but also to Apple, Google and every other company that hopes to include effective keyboard control of its products. Perhaps, Curtis should be asking, why has it been so many years since NFB published actionable user experience research?

  • Curtis includes an oddly rambling paragraph on MSAA and UIA, the accessibility API in Windows. He writes, “the screen-access software vendors (very small companies in relation to Microsoft) had to devote considerable resources to make this happen. It would be better if these relatively small companies could spend more time and effort coming up with innovations that improve the efficiency and productivity of blind users of their software.” Or, one might say, if NFB hadn’t pressured MS into not making its own screen reader, we might actually have a company who can afford to keep up with OS releases like Apple can with its VoiceOver software? Why, decades later, Chong still insists that the broken system of high priced third party screen readers should continue is baffling.

  • In the same section on Windows accessibility API, Chong also neglects to state that FS actively opposed using standard API at all. I am part of the guilty party in this as, when I worked at Fs and for a few years afterward, I argued that an API solution could never provide the kind of accessibility that we could with JAWS using proprietary techniques. We argued vociferously that, rather than a generic API, applications should expose a VB like programming interface so we, the third party screen reader developers could craft custom solutions for each separate program we cared to support. An API solution was fine for simple applications but something fancy, Excel for instance, would always do better if we could write highly customized scripts for the UX. When HJ became FS, we stopped investing as heavily in JAWS development and it was our lack of investment in further support using these non-standard techniques that resulted in deteriorating in application accessibility, not MS. It was FS who rejected MSAA approaches and chose our own non-standard route to accessibility. You can’t blame MS for deteriorating accessibility in the third party screen readers which are entirely beyond its control. If you want to blame anyone, blame me, I fought hard against API back then, so did Glen Gordon and Eric Damery. MS was right, we were wrong.

  • Curtis writes, “For years Microsoft has left the blind with no access to Windows phones.” This is not true with phones based in Windows 8. I haven’t tried a Windows phone myself and reports from the field say it is a bit sluggish but, if the word “accessible” can be applied to Android as Chong does, it should also be applied to Windows Phone 8 as regards the more than 90% of blind technology users who prefer a synthesized voice interface, Windows Phone does not yet support refreshable braille devices.

  • About the MS Bitlocker software, Curtis writes, “A blind employee who is required to use a computer with Microsoft BitLocker installed will be unable to turn the computer on and get it running—not to mention use it.” This is strange coming from an advocacy organization that opposes accessible money, beeping traffic lights and other structural bits of accessibility. The fact is, Bitlocker is not “accessible” under any known definition of the word but, as I know a whole lot of blind people whose jobs require using the software daily, suggesting that it is impossible for a blind person to use is misleading. I asked a friend how she used it and she told me, “I turn my laptop on, I wait a little while, I type in my PIN and hit ENTER, my computer starts.” Yes, Apple has made their similar technology accessible and MS should as well but, as many blind people can work around it, it isn’t a functional impossibility as Chong suggests.

I believe that a “leader” in this space, someone who by his statements that he speaks for “the blind” should be much more careful in their publications. I’m a crackpot blogger, Curtis is publishing in an official organ of an advocacy organization that claims to represent our community. I think he should be held to a much higher level of journalistic standards and, as I illustrate above, Chong’s article is filled with problems and outright factual errors.


The community of blind computer users need effective advocacy but NFB, NFBCS and Curtis Chong have demonstrated poor judgement on technological, economic, political and structural issues of the gravest importance to this community. They have not participated in the most important discussions regarding standards, guidelines, API, user experience or anything else in this space. NFB seems to do nothing to promote use of accessibility development tools or standards compliance on any platform including Windows and provides none of the useful explanatory materials a developer hoping to make his work accessible might search on. As far as I can tell, regarding advocacy on technological matters, NFB, NFBCS and Curtis Chong have been present but irrelevant for a very long time now.

To clarify, this article is specifically about leadership and advocacy and discusses the Curtis Chong, NFBCS and NFB as spokespeople for our community. NFB does many other things including having funded the development of KNFB Reader, a really terrific iOS app that I enjoy using frequently. Unfortunately, KNFB Reader is a rare exception in a very large organization.

Be My Eyes And Asking For Help


Often, I receive queries from readers of this blog asking if I will write about a particular subject in blindness and technology. These are usually good ideas for stories but, given the schedule I keep, they would take far more of my time to research, write and edit than I have available in my life at this point. Sometimes, though, a number of people all suggest that I write about the same subject and this article is the result of a number of those requests added to my own fascination with the Be My eyes phenomena.

As with the successful NVDA Remote Access fundraising campaign I wrote about here a couple of weeks back, I’m left with few hard and fast conclusions about Be My Eyes, its unprecedented growth in popularity, its penetration into mainstream media or its long term impact. What I am certain of, though, is that Be My Eyes accomplished something we’ve never before witnessed in the world of blindness and technology and that I am tremendously enthusiastic about its success so far.

What Is “Be My Eyes?”

If you read this blog, you probably follow the world of technology and vision impairment pretty closely so you are probably already quite aware of Be My Eyes (BME). If, however, you’ve been in a Rip Van Winkle style coma for the past few months, you may have missed what has been the 2015 access technology story of the year so far. Be My Eyes is an iOS app that, using a video chat system, connects blind people with sighted volunteers who can in turn lend them their ability to see.

Users download the Be My eyes software from the AppStore for no cost. When they launch the app for the first time, they are asked to register as either a blind person who may need assistance or as a sighted volunteer willing to provide such help. As I’m a blind user, when I launch the app, I’m presented with a very simple interface with only two buttons, one for “Settings” and the important one, “Connect To First Available Helper.” When one taps on the “connect” button, a little tune plays until one of the sighted volunteers accepts a request for help. Once connected, the blind user can point the camera on the iOS device at the object with which they need sighted assistance and the two parties can talk until they are satisfied they’ve solved the problem the blind person was experiencing.

The BME Phenomena

Be My Eyes is, quite obviously, a very useful tool as it provides near instant access to a volunteer willing to lend their vision to a situation in which a blind person needs some help. What BME is definitely not, though, is a tremendously innovative bit of engineering. For all intents and purposes, BME is a video chat program with the added feature of automatically connecting a person requesting assistance with a volunteer willing to help at that moment. The exciting aspects of BME aren’t wizardry in software engineering but, rather, its mastery of social engineering.

If you launch Be My Eyes right now, you will hear that it has 192K sighted volunteers, 17.3 registered blind users and 63.9K people have been helped so far. BME launched in January and, while actual market figures are impossible to get for other blindness related software products, I’m willing to wager that no technology product has reached as many blind people in as short a span of time ever before. I’m also 100% confident that no technology designed for assisting people with disabilities has received as much mainstream media attention in as compact a period either.

What BME Did

When a new technology product designed for use by blind people comes out, the hardest problem a publicist has communicating to mainstream media about it is what the thing actually does. The number of times I’ve had to explain that a screen reader is an output agent and is not voice recognition grows with nearly every conversation I have with a sighted person about the primary means with which a blind person interacts with a computer. We all use screen readers but few people outside the biz even know that such exist.

Enter Be My eyes. It does exactly one thing, it connects blind users with sighted helpers. For a blind person, it’s value is obvious, I tap a button, point the camera and I get sighted assistance; for the sighted volunteers, the value is also obvious, someone who can’t see needs to borrow a pair of eyes, I can do that.

The Be My Eyes story is so obvious, the mainstream media could comfortably talk about it and they did so in droves. I think that BME may be the first blindness oriented program that combined tremendous value to users while also having a story that can be told easily enough for all to understand.

The BME Controversy

I am of the belief that everyone, blind or otherwise, lives in a society and that each of us have ways to contribute and times we will need help. Some people around the blindness conversation are more radical than I am about independence. In my view, if asking a sighted person for help will solve a problem more quickly than I could do so by insisting on being fiercely independent, I’m going to ask for help. I often ask other pedestrians to identify places while I’m walking in a city, BME lets me ask for help when I’m alone and need sighted assistance in a hurry.

A few weeks back, though, I heard a sighted person on NPR pondering Be My Eyes with the question, “Would I be enabling or somehow taking away the agency of a blind person by helping them this way?” I suppose in the marketplace of ideas, such questions should be asked and such issues should be discussed. I don’t have answers to the hard problems in critical disability theory, I’m neither a scholar nor a philosopher. As a blind person who has BME installed on his phone, though, I’m happy to have this tool available to me and, having used it three times, I can say that it has been useful when I had no alternatives for getting something accomplished.


Be My eyes did something incredible in the blindness space. The BME team created a useful tool but, more interestingly, created a social phenomenon previously non-existent in our world. The sheer simplicity of the BME app allowed for a simple story to be told in a manner that the global media could comprehend. Will there be a next BME? Will another project repeat the publicity storm of Be My Eyes? I don’t know, I’m just happy that this event has happened and that we have BME as a tool on our mobile devices.

CSUN 2015 Report: Traditional Leadership


Last week, I published an article here called “Anarchy, Leadership and NVDA” in which I described how both the NVDA screen reader and the recent NVDA Remote Access projects were able to find funding through non-traditional sources. I discussed the challenges such efforts were causing for the traditional access technology vendors and how, through a democratic and anarchistic system, blind people took responsibility for financing the technology we need and desire.

A few weeks ago, I attended the CSUN Conference on Disability and Technology in San Diego. There, a handful of the presentations I attended demonstrated technology and expressed ideas that cracked my affected cynicism and, for different reasons, impressed me greatly. Unlike NVDA and the crowdsourced free software projects I’ve discussed recently, these projects demonstrated leadership funded and developed through more traditional channels. Thus, leadership is emerging from the mob but, it’s important to recognize, that at CSUN we witnessed a number of important and interesting developments from academia, the standards community and the corporate world. Sadly, none of the interesting developments came from the traditional access technology companies.

Last year, I wrote tens of thousands of words largely about out-of-the-box accessibility on Android beginning with “Testing Android Accessibility: I Give Up” (the single most popular article I published in 2014), followed by a series of articles on the deplorable accessibility on that platform, a series of articles on Apple’s deteriorating accessibility concluding with, “The Macintosh User Experience” (coincidentally the one of the least popular articles we published in 2014), which described how the out-of-the-box accessibility delivered by Apple just ain’t good as it used to be. Thus, as I spent most of a year writing about Apple and Google and, to a lesser extent, Microsoft, I skipped their CSUn presentations and, instead, focussed on topics, presenters and companies doing things I found interesting and innovative.

One observation I did make about CSUN in general this year, it was my first since 2012, was that a whole lot of the demoes I attended and a lot of the hallway buzz I heard was about NVDA. In the past, virtually all presentations that used a screen reader, used JAWS. At CSUN 2015, more than half of the presentations I heard showed with NVDA and/or VoiceOver. I think this is another indication of the trend toward free and no cost screen readers but, remember, this is an anecdote based purely on my observations and your experience may have been different.


It was 4:20, a time I like to celebrate, on Friday afternoon, the final slot for CSUN presentations. It was the forth or fifth presentation of the week on math accessibility but the room was filled with tired but enthusiastic attendees as this was the math presentation of the week. For me, as we will see, it had personal implications far in excess of the terrific technology to be presented.

Sina Bahram, PhD candidate at NC State, president of Prime Access Consulting (PAC) and a close personal friend of mine since he was 19 years old took the stage with David MacDonald of CanAdapt Solutions and CB Averitt of Deque Systems.

I was there to hear Sina and his demo of MathPlayer with NVDA.. I had been following this project for far longer than all but two people in the room, Neil Soiffer of Design Science and I could have known.

I first saw a super secret demo of the technology when Sina brought it to my Cambridge, Ma home last August. I was notably impressed as he showed me how different fields in mathematics were spoken with different rules as appropriate to their specific vocabulary as he navigated through what, for me at least, were pretty complicated equations. I wanted to write an article about it then but my “friend DA” with Sina kept old Gonz’s mouth shut. In my home that afternoon, Sina also told me a story about MathPlayer’s difficulty getting Freedom Scientific to support it in JAWS. In brief, Sina and Neil met with a pair of FS executives at CSUN 2014 and were told that FS saw no business case for supporting math, an obvious lie as they would instead include their own proprietary and entirely inferior solution when they released JAWS 16 in September. At the same CSUN, Sina met with Mick Curren and Jamie Teh, the guys behind NVDA and, on his plane ride home to Australia, Jamie had written the code and MathPlayer was demonstrable with the free solution.

Sina’s demo, while impressive, only showed the tip of the iceberg of this powerful new way for blind users of NVDA and, soon, Window-Eyes to be able to study math. Sometime in the next month or so, I will be posting an article here specifically about progress in mathematics for people who use screen readers that will include an in-depth description of MathPlayer with NVDA as well as a discussion of MathMLCloud from our friends at Diagram Center. As that article will contain specific details about these and perhaps some other technologies, it’s one that will take a lot more effort than a standard article here so, while it’s in progress, it’s going to take a while to get right.

In addition to enjoying watching a friend I’ve had for more than a decade do an impressive presentation, my personal connection to this project made me feel a bit emotional. When the panel completed the formal portion of the event, my hand was the first to be raised. I didn’t have a question but, rather, a statement I cleared my throat and said, “As I was the first ever Freedom Scientific executive to have been forced to tell Neil Soiffer that we wouldn’t support his work in JAWS, I just want to thank Sina, Neil, Mick, Jamie and everyone else involved in this effort for ending what’s been more than a decade of personal shame.” That brought a round of applause and I felt so happy that, after more than a decade after we had commissioned a specification to build a MathML solution into JAWS, Design Science, Sina, NVDA and soon Window-Eyes will be delivering it to their users.

As this is the article on CSUN and not on math itself, I also want to recognize Sina for the complete classiness of his presentation. While it focussed on his own work on MathPlayer and the demonstration was done with NVDA, the only screen reader that fully supports it today (the Window-Eyes solution is still a beta), he also showed how a JAWS user could do the same with the FS solution in JAWS 16. The really classy part of Sina’s presentation was that he only showed the good parts of the JAWS solution when he could have bashed it for any number of reasons, most notably, the vast superiority of the NVDA/MathPlayer combination. Sina is a class act, I’m Gonz Blinko so I can say such things.

If you’re interested in exploring math in NVDA, follow the links above to the Design Science site, grab the software and give it a ride.

FireFox OS

This piece is starting to sound like a list of Gonz’s personal friends as the second presentation I’d like to feature was the one done by old buddy and fellow Freedom Scientific throw away, Marco Zehe. If you don’t know Marco and you get the chance to meet him, you’re probably already friends, you just don’t know it yet as he’s one of the sweetest, most charming, delightful and smartest people you’ll meet around this business. If you use a screen reader and enjoy the fabulous accessibility in the FireFox browser , Marco is the guy you have to thank for it.

At CSUN 2015, Marco showed the world the accessibility features of FireFox OS, a mobile operating system designed to run on low cost handsets. The beauty of this solution is that this entire operating system is based in an expanded purpose version of the FireFox browser, hence, it inherits the accessibility features we already enjoy with the FireFox browser on Windows with NVDA and TalkBack on Android.

From what I gleaned from Marco’s presentation is that all of the controls that a FFOS app will need (the kinds of standard controls available on all OS), has their accessibility components built in and turned on by default. As the entire OS is designed to run on low end hardware, it is less likely that application developers will spend a lot of time and effort creating custom and inaccessible controls as they will also require additional memory and more horsepower from a low cost and low powered processor. I predict that, when it’s ready for general distribution, mobile devices running FFOS will jump into second place behind only iOS as the most accessible mobile devices on the market. And, unlike the one definite plus that Android can boast over iOS, it’s also going to be very inexpensive.

As Marco was showing off the screen reader that will come with FFOS, I asked the wise crack question,” Does it use circles, right angles and other weird gestures?” and, before Marco who had started to laugh could answer, a few others in the audience, in parody of the TalkBack interface, shouted out, “six finger complex polygon!” “ four finger irregular rhombus!” and the laughter spread. Marco, of course, said, “No, no weird gestures.”


While I avoided the big corporations who make AT products and the AT vendor presentations themselves, I did attend two from major American corporations and one of them, [Target], the retail giant put on a truly impressive one on Thursday morning. It’s presenter, Laurie Merryman of Target, is not an old friend of mine, we hadn’t met before the event so this little report may show less of a personal bias than the first two.

What made the Target Presentation so different and so interesting was that they weren’t discussing testing their technology against WCAG and other standards, they already had done that work. Target is doing actual human factors, true usability testing with screen readers so as to not only provide an according to Hoyle accessibility experience but to take the experience to a next level, they’re intent in this effort is to make Target a pleasant shopping experience for people with disabilities. Laurie’s presentation included a description of how they use a program called Loop 11 to monitor each keystroke or gesture a user employs to complete a task and how the software includes other features to gauge user experience. One amazing fact is that the Loop 11 testing tool is also fully accessible and can be used with a screen reader.

Recently, I’ve been working on a fairly large proposal mostly unrelated to accessibility for one of my clients. This effort has forced me to read a lot of research about non-visual literacy. Of more than 600 papers published on this subject in the fifty year period between 1963 and 2013, only 22 had a sample size over 20 participants and only three of those studied more than 30 individuals in its sample. When Laurie said that they had just started this effort at Target and, thus far, had “only 60” participants, I about jumped for joy. I raised my hand and asked, “You’re obviously gathering data to improve the Target customer experience but you are also gathering a lot of information on generic screen reader use, would you guys be willing to share that information with the rest of us?” As US corporations tend to be pathologically secretive and proprietary about data, even data that has little specific value to them, I expected she would say no, instead, to my surprise, she said, “That’s a great idea.” and one of her colleagues shouted, “That’ll be our 2016 presentation.” To a data junky like me, there was no better possible answer.

Data Visualization and SVG

I tend to avoid the social events at conferences. While I write boldly, I’m actually pretty uncomfortable in crowds, I do poorly with small talk, I often get too passionate about a topic to remain polite and I’m happiest when in small groups. Thus, when I decided to attend the Diagram Center reception at CSUN, i was making an exception. I was comforted by knowing that I knew a lot of the people there and my long relationship with Benetech, the parent organization of Diagram Center, I also knew I would have some old friends around.

While I got to meet and talk to a lot of people doing interesting things at this reception and, of course, as I mentioned above, I’m enthusiastic about the Diagram Center’s MathMLCloud project( more to come on it in the upcoming math article), the I got to meet and was tremendously impressed by a W3C guy named Doug Schepers.

My friends Mia and Mallory led me to one of the bedrooms attached to the suite where the reception was held. A few others were already gathered there and my dog, thinking he was at home, jumped onto the bed and took a nap. At the desk, sat Doug Schepers and he was going to show us a prototype of a talking system for SVG based charts and tables. Doug’s prototype used a self voicing interface as he hasn’t found a screen reader to support it yet but it was truly impressive.

Doug’s approach to this problem comes from his background in standards. His work proposes a set of additions to Aria for describing data visualizations. His demo showed only a single bar chart but the potential for this, in a standards based manner, is terrific.

My personal attachment to Doug’s work was that, as VP/Software Engineering at Freedom Scientific, it was my idea and Joe Stephen’s work that got charts and graphs talking in Microsoft Excel. What Doug’s solution provides are the semantics that make reading such information far nicer. I sincerely hope we can find a way to get this experimental code into NVDA to test it while Doug works to get this extension accepted by the people who set the Aria standard.

Hanging Out

A big part of going to CSUN is having the opportunity to meet and hang out with both old friends and friends we hadn’t made yet. First and fore mostly, I had a wonderful time spending time with and getting to know fellow 3MT member, Mallory Van Achterberg, one of the smartest, kindest and absolutely most fun people you’ll ever meet in this business. It was a pleasure to meet Karl Groves, a guy whose work I’ve admired but never got the chance to meet in person and a person with whom I’d have probably been friends as we spent a lot of time in the same places with a bunch of the same people, separated only by the time dimension. Donal Fitzpatrick, did a terrific presentation on his on going research into a system that will, using haptic cues, provide blind musicians in an orchestra with the information that the conductor does visually and having lunch with Donal afterward was great. As ever, it’s always nice to see the lovely Laura Legendary, even if only for a few fleeting moments. I can’t list everyone whom I had the pleasure of meeting and talking to but, suffice it to say, I’m grateful for every moment of your time.

I want to thank Steve Sawczyn and Paul Adam for the work they did on our “Dueling Mobile panel. It was originally my idea, I suggested the panel in a blog article I wrote here last summer but Steve and Paul did all of the real work. I got to make a few wisecracks and MC the event but Paul and Steve did all of the heavy lifting. You can find our HTML Obstacle Course on Paul’s web site and you can use it to test your mobile accessibility as well.

Lastly, I would like to thank all of you who came up to me to tell me that you read and enjoy the blog. I don’t ask for donations so but I do gain a lot of satisfaction when readers find me and tell me they enjoy my work. This blog would be a lot less interesting if it wasn’t for the readers who help keep our hit count up, write comments and tweet out the links. I appreciate all of your support.


While we may be experiencing an uprising of democratically run and user funded leaders emerging, there is a lot of important work happening in the more traditional areas in accessibility as well. I see no leadership from the traditional AT players but academia, independent ventures, the standards community and the corporate world are doing some very interesting things. This article is by no means complete, lots of other interesting developments are happening all of the time and I’m glad to be an observer as we all get to watch the technology move forward.

Anarchy, Leadership and NVDA


When I first met Richard Stallman, he described his philosophy as “information anarchism” and explained his vision for a future of free software in which individuals and corporations voluntarily donate money to support the programmers bringing them free, libre and open source technologies. Stallman’s dream has been the NVDA reality for many years now. NVDA comes from an entirely unregulated system of voluntary donations and has allowed Mick Curren and Jamie Teh to deliver one of the best screen readers ever built to a community yearning for its independence, freedom from Freedom Scientific and its high priced competitors if you will.

Last week, my good friends and business partners, Christopher “Q” Toth and Tyler Spivey took the anarchy to another level, they found that this community would donate its hard earned dollars to an entirely independent effort. The power centers for screen reading had been based in St. Petersburg, Fort Wayne, Orlando/Minnesota and in the UK. Q and Tyler have acted in a manner that shows that some true authority can be derived directly from end users, they stepped up, took on the leadership of a single task (building NVDA Remote Access) and the community took notice, donated the dollars the boys had set as a goal and, soon, all of us will have a really cool free addition to an awesome free screen reader.

The NVDA RA team had an amazing week during the fundraising push. What everyone involved agrees is that we’re witnessing history; what we can’t entirely figure out is whether or not the NVDA RA campaign was a fluke, a one-off or if, indeed, we are experiencing an actual paradigm shift and a reassignment of leadership from a small number of gatekeepers to a profoundly more democratic and anarchistic model for the future. Thus, on a personal level, I know that I had made some major misassumptions in my evaluation of the effort prior to the campaigns launch as, quite frankly, I didn’t expect to see so many of the big dollar donations coming from blind individuals. I hadn’t the confidence in our community to be willing to invest as heavily and as quickly in their own future as they did last week. Hence, the rest of this article will contain internal contradictions, some likely incorrect assumptions and will likely meander into and out of notions without making any strict conclusions. What happened last week with NVDA Remote Access may be a fluke, a one-off and may never be replicated again. I hope that this isn’t the case, I hope NVDA RA set a precedent and established a model that people in this community who find a leadership vacuum can use to do many more projects this way in the future. As NVDA RA represents exactly one data point, people who care about statistics (like me) have no actual data from which we can draw conclusions but I think we can make some inferences about the future from this single event.

Thus, what follows are my thoughts on the events we witnessed last week. You may have vastly different ideas on the matter and, please, post them in the comments section as I’m trying to learn as much as I can from this event and I suspect others will be interested in your notions as well. On this happening, I’m not an expert, I’m just a guy who watched the thing unfold and was exhilarated by its success.


In the original version of this article, I stated that JAWS Tandem, a feature similar to NVDA Remote Access came at an extra cost to its users. A commenter pointed out that this was not true and, after a quick Google search, I saw on the Freedom Scientific web site that, indeed, JAWS Tandem comes at no extra cost to people who buy a JAWS license. I apologize for this mistake and have corrected it in the text that follows. Thanks for the diligence Mr. Commenter!

I also had written that “less than half” of the NVDA RA contributions came from English speaking nations. I was working from memory of a conversation on TeamTalk and was just reminded that the English speaking world contributed closer to 65% of the contributions and only 40% had come from US.

I had mentioned that Mick Curren and Jamie Teh, the guys who created NVDA, were both college drop-outs. Jamie sent me a tweet this morning and a commenter pointed out that this is true for Mick but not for Jamie. Sorry about that.

Freedom From Freedom?

“Freedom’s just another word for nothing left to lose, And, nothing ain’t worth nothing if it ain’t free,” Kris Kristofferson.

The NVDA screen reader is free software. This means that it can be used, redistributed and enjoyed in any way possible for no cost. It also means that the source code is available to anyone interested in using it for any reason allowable under the GPL 2 license. JAWS, the screen reader from Freedom Scientific comes with a price tag over $1000. I believe, based in comments posted in the article I wrote on this blog announcing NVDA RA and some of the chatter on Twitter surrounding the Indie Go-Go campaign, that some of the people who donated to the NVDA RA campaign were motivated to contribute in order to afford themselves and the rest of the community a level of freedom from Freedom and its high prices.

JAWS and NVDA are similar but not identical beasts. Some blind users who need access to a handful of specific technologies (Citrix for instance) have no choice but to continue using JAWS as NVDA, at this point in history, has no support for such. Conversely, there are a lot of screen reader users, especially those in technology related professions, who have no choice but to use NVDA as JAWS and its high priced competitors have largely ignored many of the tools they need to do their work.

WebAIM published marketshare statistics that showed that, on Windows, JAWS was holding a share around 55% with NVDA coming in around 22%. This data was gathered in a self selecting survey so is less than scientific. The WebAIM survey was also only done in English so it’s likely that few people from non-English speaking locales participated. The other night, as Q and I went over the tracking information from the NVDA RA Indie Go-Go campaign, one surprise was that only about 65%of the money contributed came from English speaking countries. It’s possible, therefore, that NVDA may actually have a larger share when viewed on a global basis. As the market data comes from a self selecting survey, it’s also possible that JAWS, because of its popularity in corporate and government installations, may also be underrepresented as users may not have gone to the WebAIM site to fill in the survey form while at work. If one looks at all five years that WebAIM has published this information, though, they will see that the trend lines show that NVDA is the only Windows screen reader that has shown growth in marketshare in each of the years described in the data.

Any regular reader of this blog will know that I’ve railed against the lack of competition in screen reading many times. With NVDA approaching a quarter of all Windows screen reader installations, Freedom Scientific is, for the first time since 1998 when JAWS and Window-Eyes were tied with an approximately 35% share, actually feeling some heat.

Will FS respond to this new found competition, possibly based in the fact that NVDA costs nothing and FS gets more than a thousand bucks for JAWS with a price cut? Probably not. I haven’t worked at FS for more than a decade but, back then, we discussed the possibility of a free or no cost screen reader coming onto the market and how we might respond. Our strategy then and likely now was that, if we felt competitive pressure from a low or no cost solution, we would raise the price of JAWS. As I mentioned a couple of paragraphs ago, there are technologies that one can only access using JAWS and the FS strategy was to make sure we kept our profits high by “eating the rich.” I don’t know if FS will respond this way ten and a half years later but, as NVDA RA adds a feature to NVDA that one needed to buy JAWS to get, , they may need to find a way to replace the dollars on their bottom line and may, in fact, respond by increasing the price of JAWS.

The Leadership Vacuum

Roughly ten years ago, Mick Curren and Jamie Teh, two very young blind individuals came up with the idea that they could build a competitive Windows screen reader on their own. Most old timers around the access technology game actually laughed out loud. A couple of kids in Australia might take a stab at the problem, they might make a toy screen reader, they’ll get the stuff the API delivers properly maybe but little else. Over time, though, Mick and Jamie proved to the world that, following Richard Stallman’s dream process of accepting only voluntary contributions, a couple of smart individuals could, in fact, build a screen reader that can compete with JAWS and crush Window-Eyes, SystemAccess and the Dolphin products in the marketshare wars. Mick and Jamie and the people and companies who contributed to the effort showed true leadership while most of the traditional gatekeepers, both formal and otherwise, ignored the question of whether or not it would be better if our community had a free solution as an alternative to the costly proprietary screen readers.

My questions are, “Why did two individuals need to lead the free screen reader project? Where were NFB, AFB, ACB and the other so called advocacy organizations and why have they been so silent on this matter? Why don’t the traditional leaders understand that it is immoral, unethical and possibly illegal in some locales to ask blind people to pay a penny more than our sighted peers to use the same technology?”

I contend that the traditional leaders in the blindness and technology community dropped the ball many years ago and, for reasons of their own, chose to act like ostriches, stick their heads into the sand and pretend this issue didn’t exist. They are not real leaders, people like Mick and Jamie are the real leadership in our community.

Emerging Leadership

If we cannot depend on the traditional advocacy organizations to provide leadership and if old timers like me continue to stand on the sidelines, if FS continues to allow JAWS to decay and the other commercial screen readers continue to be poorly funded, who are the leaders in our community? In the NVDA case, it was two guys, with NVDA Remote Access, it was, once again, two guys, Christopher Toth and Tyler Spivey. The leadership vacuum regarding technology and blindness was so intense that these guys, when they saw a need for a free solution, got sucked into a leadership role.

NVDA is a huge and complex piece of software that, to date, has taken something like ten years to develop. NVDA Remote Access, however, is a relatively straight forward programming task, it’s not innovative in any way (it’s pretty similar to JAWS Tandem, the similar feature in Window-Eyes and RIM from Serotek) so it contains no problems that haven’t already been solved by someone else previously. NVDA RA is unique in that it will be available to end users at no cost and its source code will be available to anyone with Python programming skills to extend, improve and hack on forever. Almost anyone with some coding and fundraising skills could have elected to do this project at any time in the past few years; Q and Tyler wanted the feature so they grabbed the reigns and took the leadership role when everyone else refused to do so. It’s possible that you, the folks who read this blog, can also step up and become a leader in this field, you too can be a leader who makes a big contribution.

The other change in the leadership we might be witnessing is that the community itself, as in the theoretical anarchism Stallman describes, is taking control of its own destiny by voting with their dollars. With NVDA and NVDA RA,, hundreds of blind individuals chose to buy for themselves the leadership they want. In this example, every donor, whether they gave $5 or $250, took on part of the leadership role by deciding what technology we use by taking charge of a portion of the funding model. I wish that the traditional leaders (NFB and the like) had realized the importance of a free solution, alas, in a democratic uprising, the community, led by Mick and Jamie, Q and Tyler, did the leading in a distributed manner.

If you’re reading this article, you might be the next leader in this space. I encourage as many people as possible to step up and take the bull by the balls and run with a project. It’s obvious that we cannot wait for any of the leaders from history so, do something, lead!

My Role In NVDA RA

Since announcing the NVDA Remote Access campaign on this blog last Tuesday, I’ve received a number of inquiries asking me what my role has been in the project. Some people have privately suggested to me that they thought I am leading the project from behind the scenes, something that could not be further from the truth. I am not, in any way, a puppet master pulling the strings from behind a curtain. In fact, my role has been fairly minimal in this effort. Others have suggested that this is a 3 Mouse Technology effort, an easy mistake as Q, Tyler and I are all involved in 3MT and we’re all named on the Indie Go-Go as team members. In fact, NVDA RA is a project unattached to any organization, it’s a private project being done by the two guys writing the code.

NVDA RA was born as an idea when Q and Tyler were chatting on TeamTalk and realized that they wanted to have this feature in NVDA. They banged out a prototype and Q then took over the project. I was struggling with a health problem when this all started, I was not present for the conversations nor did I do anything at all to help its development. Q spent the time and did the work to get the NVDA RA story to as many people as he could, he managed every step of the process and he’s the true leader on this effort.

I have helped in a few ways. I wrote a few drafts of the statement you might have read on the Indie Go-Go page but the final text was done by Joe Orozco, a friend of the project. I’ve provided some free advice which was probably worth less than the guys paid for it and it was my idea to ask the silken voiced Ricky Enger to record a demo. I helped push out the campaign here on the blog and I made a lot of noise for a few days on Twitter trying to drive my followers to the campaign page but I’m following Q’s direction on all of this.

The fact is, I’m an old guard access technology guy. I hadn’t the imagination to even believe that a crowdsourced effort would gain so much traction and actually meet its goal. I was surprised by the campaign’s success and how rapidly it met its numbers. I’d be a terrible leader on this project as I simply wasn’t creative enough to think this would be possible and, if one cannot even imagine the possibilities, they absolutely cannot be a leader.

Free Software And Security

As I wrote back in January, we’ve seen a couple of very public security breaches in the proprietary access technology world recently. NVDA and NVDA RA are free (as in freedom) software, a company or individual concerned with potential security defects can, only with NVDA and its components, perform a security audit on the source code and be as confident as their expertise will allow that the software contains no security defects. Plain and simply, this is entirely impossible with JAWS, Window-Eyes, the Serotek or Dolphin products to have the same level of confidence as, without the source code, users must trust the publishers to sell them software that they cannot audit independently. For all intents and purposes, the more people who can look at the source code, the more likely it is that bugs of all kinds will be found and fixed, a feature of NVDA that simply doesn’t exist in any other screen reader.

It’s true that few individuals will have the skills to perform their own security audit. I certainly can’t perform this kind of work, I don’t know Python and security isn’t my speciality. I do, however, feel much more confident while using NVDA, though, as others expert in security can do such a review and, in a corporate setting, a company with a high level of security requirements can afford to hire professional security auditors to review the source code.

Is Crowdsourcing A Model For The Future?

As I say at the top of this article, I don’t know. NVDA has been crowdsourced from day one and has been a tremendous success. NVDA RA hit its fundraising goals in less than two days. Freedom Scientific is feeling marketshare pressure for the first time in a decade and other proprietary screen readers are falling in popularity. Is this model a plan for the future? All I can say is that we’ll see.


Mick and Jamie, Q and Tyler are now the true leaders in access technology. They became so because they made personal decisions to take on important projects and did so out of pocket when they started their efforts. They saw holes in the system and they filled them. The people and companies who have contributed to these efforts are also leaders as they have decided where the dollars should go. NVDA is information anarchy at work and its winning the hearts and minds of the community in a way that none of we old time so-called experts could have predicted.

I think we can also conclude that there is a severe problem with the traditional leadership in this community. As a result, we need to, as individuals, step forward and take control, you may be the next big shot in this field, all you need is an idea and the time to do some hard work. You needn’t be a programmer to lead a technology project, it certainly is helpful but, if you’ve got a good idea and can raise enough money, you can hire any number of developers to make your dream into a reality.

It’s also time we start holding the identified leaders to a much higher standard. NFB, ACB and the others have been notably absent on these issues and complete nitwits claiming to be accessibility experts get tons of YouTube views while providing information that is worse than useless as its entirely without actual knowledge of the technology involved. We all need to become harsh critics and, while I’m sure we’ll be writing for years to come, we need more people than just Marco Zehe and I doing serious criticism. Stop worrying if you may hurt the feelings of programmers who deliver crappy accessibility, stop worrying if FS may not like you if you speak up, do the right thing, speak critically, speak frequently and speak loudly as, otherwise, by not doing so you are part of the problem, not part of the solution.

NVDA Remote Access


Back in December, I wrote an article called, “2014 In Review And Predictions For 2015” in which I somewhat disingenuously predict that this will be a big year for NVDA. I say “disingenuously” not because I don’t think this is true but, rather, because I had a lot of insider knowledge about some of the things that would happen with NVDA this year well in advance of the general public so I knew that some incredibly important developments in this popular free screen reader would be available to a broader audience in the first half of 2015.

One of these exciting developments motivated this article. It’s called NVDA Remote Access and brings functionality similar to JAWS Tandem to the world of people who use NVDA, currently the number two screen reader on the Windows operating system. For the reasons I’ll describe below, please click on this link, it will bring you to an Indie Go-Go fundraising page and donate some money to the project so my good friends and business partners Christopher Toth and Tyler Spivey can gather the funding necessary to bring this truly important bit of software to the NVDA using public.

This article is considerably shorter than my normal two to three thousand words on a subject. There’s little I can say that isn’t already discussed on the NVDA Remote Access Indie Go-Go campaign page, so please visit it to learn much more about this important bit of software.

NVDA Remote Access Basics

NVDA RA allows a user with the software installed to control another user’s PC who is also running the code. The two users agree on a secret term, they both connect to the same NVDA Remote Access server, type in their secret word and are immediately connected. This permits a variety of tasks that were previously impossible, most importantly hands-on technical support and training.

In brief, people can use NVDA RA to do nearly everything one can on a local computer while hearing what NVDA is saying on the remote system. Previously, one could purchase JAWS Tandem which, including JAWS, costs more than $1200 and, if this project gets its funding, they will now have this functionality for free.

Why NVDA Remote Access Is Important

For the past few years, I’ve heard from a lot of people around the business of bringing accessible solutions to large populations. These are the people who make purchasing decisions for entire states and federal agencies as well as individuals who use screen readers who have wanted to use a remote solution for any number of reasons. Plain and simply, they agree that NVDA is the best screen reading solution for Windows but they couldn’t use it because it had no functionality like that in JAWS Tandem, hence, it was difficult to provide hands-on support and training. With NVDA Remote Access installed, this problem disappears and, while I can’t say anything too specific about these developments due to NDA, some big time installations are rethinking JAWS and will likely switch to the profoundly more cost effective NVDA in the relatively short term future.

My Experience With NVDA RA

Recently, I made the decision to return to Windows as my full time platform and I’ll only use Macintosh for a handful of very specific tasks. The combination of NVDA and the Windows OS and software like FireFox, Chicken Nugget and QRead (coincidentally also written by Toth and Spivey), Microsoft Office and a variety of other applications simply work better for me than do their analogues on Macintosh. As I haven’t used Windows much since 2008 or so and that I’d never used Windows 8 for more than a couple of hours at a time, I needed a bunch of help setting up my new laptop. I didn’t even know all of the apps and utilities I should install and Tyler jumped in to help me.

Using NVDA Remote Access, Tyler was able to install a number of apps, utilities and the like, change my settings to something I would enjoy more and perform a variety of tasks to get me up and running. On his system, he heard NVDA speaking with his chosen synthesizer at his chosen speech rate while I enjoyed using my synthesizer and speech rate on my local system. All I had to do was sit back and hit Alt+y a few times when the UAC dialogues popped up. I’ve also had the opportunity to watch Tyler help his father, a 70 year old sighted technology neophyte, do all sorts of things on his computer as well.

NVDA Remote Access is a powerful tool in its prototype state and will be a killer app when it’s fully implemented.

Other Solutions

Yesterday, Serotek announced that users could buy a “day pass” to use their RIM (Remote Incident Manager) software for $15 per 24 hours. Instead of paying Serotek $15 for a single day, please instead send those dollars to the NVDA Remote Access Indie Go-Go campaign and participate in building a much better program built into a much better screen reader that you and everyone else who cares to can use for free forever. If my typical average hit count of readers of this blog all kick in $20, the world will have NVDA RA for free, forever.


Please send some money to the NVDA Remote Access project. This is an important big step for free screen reading solutions and will be a force in accessibility for years to come.

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Data Breaches Plague AT Industry


This story has been unfolding as I was writing this piece. I was in process of doing my final edits when I received a phone call from one of my sources. For reasons that will become obvious as you read the rest of this piece, the FBI has been contacted regarding the data breach at GW Micro/AI Squared. Stay tuned for updates as I get them.

As this is the most popular independent blog in the blindness space and one of the rare regular publications in this field willing to write about issues of controversy in a critical and data driven manner, I get a fair amount of email from random individuals interested in blindness and technology containing what they believe to be an important idea for a story. These emails sometimes describe an issue in accessibility about which I hadn’t written previously but, more often than not, they contain some bit of what I consider to be gossip about one person or another inside the AT biz and wouldn’t be of much interest to a broad readership.

Then, this morning, I received an anonymized contact from an individual only self identified as the hacker who cracked Window-Eyes and the Serotek systems. I’ve alerted individuals at both companies that I’ve been contacted by said hackers and shared with them the information I’ve received thus far.

In light of the Sony data breach, I thought you would enjoy a story about a pair of recent hacks in the access technology industry.

The Message I Got Today

This morning, I awoke to a message from an anonymous sender claiming to be the person who hacked both Serotek and, in the past 24 hours, GW Micro/AI Squared. The message said that the hackers would send me the complete Window-Eyes user database and included some sample records from such. The message also said that the hackers have in their possession the Serotek 2012 and 2013 financial reports and other information they had downloaded in November. In the GW Micro case, it’s clear that these people have user names, passwords, serial numbers but not credit card information as it isn’t in the file they shared with me. From the snippets of data they elected to quote from the Serotek financial reports, it was unclear to me if, indeed, the data is genuine as I’ve no way of checking it for accuracy.

I have sent the data that I received to AI Squared and have deleted it from my system and no longer have it anywhere as I’ve even emptied the trash on my Mac.

The Strange Thing

As it’s clear that these hackers possess some information that could be tremendously damaging to either of these companies, it’s unclear as to why they didn’t just post it to some public but anonymous site rather than just communicating the fact that they had said information to a blogger like me. In fact, the hackers chose to make statements in support of radical Islam from within Window-Eyes and on the Serotek Twitter accounts, allowing the public to see their hacking work without causing any real damage. I’ll assume these people see themselves more as clever vandals than actual data thieves but anything I suggest about them is purely conjecture as we don’t have a personal relationship.

I do not for a second, however, believe these hackers are actually Islamic radicals but, rather, to me they seem to be bored individuals from within the community of people with vision impairment who’ve learned some advanced hacking skills and chose to apply them to companies in this business.

The Window-Eyes Hack

The hackers were able to get into the Window-Eyes database of registered users, and download all of the account information but, most interestingly, they managed to change Window-Eyes itself so, when its users awoke and turned on their computers this morning it updated and, once per minute or so, would make an announcement in support of the Islamic State. From my own hacker perspective, I must tip my hat to these guys for creativity in the technological equivalent of graffiti as actually forcing a product to update just to pull a prank is pretty damned clever, albeit annoying to its victims.

What Motivated the Hackers?

Again, I’m stepping deep into conjecture here but, as the hackers have chosen not to just dump all of this data onto a public site releasing potentially private information on Window-Eyes users and insider financial information about Serotek, I’ll assume they think of themselves as “grey hat” hackers. They have some fun with some minor malice while electing not to do anything that could cause irreparable harm to either the individuals or companies they’ve targeted.

At some level, I think the AI Squared and Serotek people got off easy. If these hackers had chosen to, they could have inflicted some truly heinous fuckery onto these companies, their employees and their users like what is assumed to be the North Koreans in their attack on Sony Entertainment. Instead, they make some silly statements intended to anger some people and write to me about their efforts knowing that I’d tell the world about their hack.

Is Your Information Safe?

If you are a registered Window-Eyes user and you use the same password for other services as well, I strongly recommend that you change not only your GW Micro password but, assuming you use the same email address for Window-Eyes as you do for Amazon or some other place where your credit card information might be exposed, change that too. I do not know how to decrypt your passwords in the sample data I had received but something tells me that these hackers may have such tools and, while their activities have been relatively benign so far, one cannot be too careful these days.

I assumed the same would be the case for users of Serotek products but, this morning, I spoke on the phone with Mike Calvo and he assured me that it was not the Serotek system that was compromised but, rather, it was his own account which, of course, had access to a lot of interesting business information but not to user information, databases, passwords and such that was hacked.


Data breaches are the news of the day with Sony and the numerous reports of shopping and other web properties being hacked. Typically, the blindness business is way behind the mainstream curve but, regarding security failures, I suppose this time we’re running even with the state-of-the-art.

All kidding aside, there has been an historic schism between the security and the accessibility communities. As I’ve written here and on my BlindConfidential blog, it is essential that accessibility related tools be seen as fully secure as they are essential to people’s employment in positions where security is a very high priority. A lot of blind people work in government positions, many dealing with very sensitive data. Events like a security breach at an AT company, while it says nothing to the reality of whether or not the AT itself is a security problem will not leave those responsible for security in large installations with a warm and fuzzy about our community.

Thus, while the hackers in the Serotek and AI Squared cases seem to have thought of this kind of activity as a lark, a game to play or a prank, I recommend, for the sake of the industry’s reputation, that such activities stop immediately. To quote the astro-physicist Phil Plate, please, don’t be a dick.